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Pros & Cons of Weight Loss Surgery

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Obesity has become epidemic when occurring in concomitance with other disorders. It has become more prevalent among the young generation. To avoid the adverse consequences and for cosmetic purposes, a variety of surgeries have been introduced that have been practised by surgeons.

Bariatric surgery, a non-specific group of surgical operations used to combat obesity. It works by altering the gastrointestinal tract and affects the production of intestinal hormones that reduce the appetite and increase satiety, a feeling of fullness.

Most common types include gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric band. These surgeries cater some disadvantages and side effects along with the advantages the customers must be looking for.

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
This surgery includes stomach division creating a small stomach, followed by intestine division creating a small intestine. The small intestine is then connected to the small stomach followed by connecting the small intestine with its remaining large portion of its proper functionality.

1. The small bifurcated stomach restricts food and facilitates less food digestion leading to less caloric absorption by small intestine connecting to it.
2. This accelerates weight loss procedure and produces long-term productive results in less time.
3. By regulating hormone levels like insulin and glucose, it reverses Type-2-Diabetes affects.
4. It regulates gut hormone by decreasing ghrelin and increasing leptin to reduce hunger.

1. Since the surgery is complex, it may lead to some unforeseen complications (Blood clot, infection, gallstones and ulcers) that varies from patient to patient based on their physiology.
2. It can disturb hormone levels and can cause hormonal disorders.
3. Fast digestion results in less reabsorption of essential minerals and vitamin causing their deficits.
4. It requires continuous restricted diet and follow-up vitamins supplements. Long-term use of these supplements may increase chances of cancer.
Sleeve gastrectomy
This surgical procedure includes removal of three-quarter of the stomach and creates a new, small volume stomach sleeve that connects with the small intestine.

1. It does not include rerouting gut system, thus reduces the complications.
2. It also restricts food and speeds up the metabolic system with less caloric intake.
3. It primarily affects hormones and reverses Type-2-Diabetes to some extent.
4. It does not cause adverse hormonal disorders.
5. It beneficial for the sever obese patients who cannot withstand gastric bypass.

1. It permanently reduces the stomach size and cannot be reversed.
2. The part of the stomach, from where rest of the stomach is removed, is sealed. This sealing can reopen and cause serious complications (Bleeding and infections).
3. Poor diet can initiate weight gain cycle by lengthening stomach to its previous size.
4. Vitamin deficiencies are more likely to occur.

Gastric band
This involves administration of a foreign band around the stomach and creates resizable small stomach.

1. Likewise, the small stomach pouch produces fewer hormones, consequently fewer food cravings.
2. This limits the amount of food that the stomach usually holds and reduces the food consumption.
3. It is a less invasive surgical procedure and can be reversed.
4. Since there is no re-routing or removing of the stomach, the procedure is less painful and absorbs nutrients efficiently, hence no malnutrition.
5. It causes less life-threatening disorders and speeds up the recovery process with productive results.

1. The foreign device can cause infections, internal bleeding and gastritis.
2. The band can dislocate and erode stomach wall.
3. Weight loss is not rapid and it is a time taking procedure.

To avoid these complications, patients must follow a restricted diet and post-operation approved exercises or go on a weight loss retreat holiday which with moderate exercise, healthy diet and reduced stress can help you lose weight naturally.